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「咖啡品种」卡杜艾和波旁马亚圭斯71(BM71)品种介绍

2023-05-19 01:09:37 326

摘要:前言AK 培训工作室以世界咖啡研究中心的阿拉比卡咖啡种类手册为基础准备开启咖啡品种类课程,本文则是翻译此手册产生的系列文章。卡杜拉(CATURRA)A compact plant with good yielding potential o...

前言

AK 培训工作室以世界咖啡研究中心的阿拉比卡咖啡种类手册为基础准备开启咖啡品种类课程,本文则是翻译此手册产生的系列文章。

卡杜拉(CATURRA)

A compact plant with good yielding potential of standard quality in Central America. Very high susceptibility to coffee leaf rust.

树形紧凑矮小、在中美洲有较好质量和较高产量,但极易感染叶锈病

Caturra is a natural mutation of the Bourbon variety. It was discovered on a plantation in the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil sometime between 1915 and 1918.

1915年至1918年间,在巴西米纳斯杰拉斯州的一个种植园里发现的波旁的自然变异品种。

Caturra has a single-gene mutation that causes the plant to grow smaller (called dwarfism). Its name derives from the Guarani word meaning "small." It is also called "Nanico." After Caturra’s discovery, selections were made by the Instituto Agronomico (IAC) of Sao Paulo State in Campinas, Brazil, starting in 1937. Breeders were interested in Caturra’s small size, which allows plants to be placed closer together, and its closely spaced secondary branches, which enable it to produce more fruit in the same space.

它的一个单一的基因突变,导致咖啡树变小(称为侏儒症)。它的名字来源于瓜拉尼语,意思是“小”。又因为其植株小,能在阳光充裕的地方高密度的种植,从而提高产量,所以1937年开始,巴西圣保罗州的坎皮纳斯农学研究所(IAC)就将其作为母品种进行选择,从而产生新品种。

The selection process for Caturra was called mass selection, meaning that a group of individuals are selected based on their superior performance, seed from these plants is bulked to form a new generation, and then the process is repeated. The variety was never officially released in Brazil, but has become common in Central America.

这一选择过程被称为群体选择。就是选择表现优良类型是树,然后用这些树的种子形成新一代,如重复次过程。这一品种从未都在巴西推广,但是在中美洲其他低得到普遍种植。

It was introduced in Guatemala in the 1940s, but widespread commercial adoption didn’t happen for another three decades. From Guatemala, it was introduced to Costa Rica, Honduras, and Panama. Today, it is one of the most economically important coffees in Central America, to the extent that it is often used as a “benchmark” against which new cultivars are tested. In Colombia, Caturra was thought to represent nearly half of the country’s production until a government-sponsored program beginning in 2008 incentivised renovation of over three billion coffee trees with the leaf-rust resistant Castillo variety (which has Caturra parentage).

20世纪40年代引进到危地马拉,从为地买了传入哥斯达黎加、洪都拉斯、和巴拿马。现在它是中美洲重要的品种之一,其通常倍作为新品种的测试“基准”。它占哥伦比亚产量将近一半,直到2008年,政府资助一个项目,此项目鼓励用抗叶锈病的卡斯蒂略品种代替现在品种,这使得其拥有30亿棵卡斯蒂略咖啡树。

Caturra is also known for being one of the parents the so-called “Catimor” family of cultivars. Various lines of the coffee-leaf-rust-resistant Timor Hybrid were crossed with Caturra to produce a dwarf plant with rust resistance. Examples of Catimor varieties include: Costa Rica 95, Catisic, Lempira, and IHCAFE 90.

卡杜拉,同时也是目前卡蒂姆品种家族的亲本。卡蒂姆品种家族就是用卡杜拉与混种帝汶杂交尝试的耐叶锈病矮化品种。目前常见的卡蒂姆系类品种有:哥斯达黎加95、卡蒂奇、伦皮拉和HCAFE90。

For more information on the history of the Catimor group, see T8667.

关于卡蒂姆品种家族请参考T8667品种。

波旁马亚圭斯71 (BM71)

Moderate yield, good cup potential, and susceptible to major diseases.Adapted for medium altitudes. Found commonly in Rwanda and Burundi.

产量中等、抗病能力弱、适于中等海拔地区种植,其风味质量较高。常见于卢旺达和布隆迪。

Bourbon Mayaguez 71 got its name because it is believed to have transited from Central America through the USDA germplasm collection of Mayaguez in Puerto Rico. Bourbon had previously been introduced to Puerto Rico from Central America. It was introduced to the germplasm collection at Mulungu in the Democratic Republic of Congo in the 1930s, and then introduced to Rwanda in the early 1950s. It is an important variety in Rwanda.

它是由美国农业部从波多黎各收集的马亚圭斯品种转变而来的。而马亚圭斯是波旁从中美洲传波多黎各的子品种。20世纪30年代,马亚圭斯品种其被刚果民主共和国收集在穆隆古。在19世纪50年代早期,其被到到卢旺达种植,目前是卢旺达重要的品种。

When the population of Bourbon Mayaguez was introduced to East Africa, some mother trees were selected over others as the basis for the release of new varieties. Bourbon Mayaguez 71 and Bourbon Mayaguez 139 resulted from these selections; they are very similar in agronomic performance.

当波旁马亚圭斯被带到东非种植后,一些波旁马亚圭斯树被挑选出来作为新品种的母树。波旁波旁马亚圭139和71就是在这些母树上选择出的新品种,他们在农艺上非常相似。

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